LifePO4(Lithium FerroPhosphate)

LiFePO4 is a natural mineral of the olivine family (triphylite). Arumugam Manthiram and John B. Goodenough first identified the polyanion class of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.[12][13][14] LiFePO4 was then identified as a cathode material belonging to the polyanion class for use in batteries in 1996 by Padhi et al.[15][16] Reversible extraction of lithium from LiFePO4 and insertion of lithium into FePO4 was demonstrated. Because of its low cost, non-toxicity, the natural abundance of iron, its excellent thermal stability, safety characteristics, electrochemical performance, and specific capacity (170 mA·h/g, or 610 C/g) it has gained considerable market acceptance.[17][18]

The chief barrier to commercialization was its intrinsically low electrical conductivity. This problem was overcome by reducing the particle size, coating the LiFePO4 particles with conductive materials such as carbon nanotubes,[19][20] or both. This approach was developed by Michel Armand and his coworkers at Hydro-Québec and the Université de Montréal.[21] [22][23] Another approach by Yet Ming Chiang‘s group at MIT consisted of doping[17] LFP with cations of materials such as aluminium, niobium, and zirconium.